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AMAZING PANORAMIC PHOTOS TAKEN
China’s Chang e4 explores far side of the moon!
Jade Rabbit 2 weighs 308lbs (139kg) and has six individually powered wheels so it can continue to operate even if one wheel fails. It rolled on to the lunar surface from the lander via two ramps and will explore the Von Karman crater in the southern region of the far side of the moon.
CHINA’S Chang e-4 and Yutu-2 landed on the far side of the moon on January 4 and has sent back stunning images that reveal the vast and barren wasteland on the far side side of the moon as well as shots of the machinery.  This celestial photoshoot gives an astonishing look at the tandem of cutting-edge tech China has created. Footage has also emerged of a first-person look at the final approach of Chang’e-4 as it completed its landing.
Chang e-4’s 360° lens captured the Yutu-2 - or Jade Rabbit 2 - rover in front of the grey moonscape and reveals the potholed surface and barren expanse of land inside the the mysterious Von Kármán crater at the lunar south pole.
Chang’e-4 landed in the Von Karman crater in the South Pole-Aitken basin. This is an enormous crater which resides at the very most southern tip of the moon.  
China’s space agency hopes that by exploring the huge divot on the surface of the moon they may be able to shed some light on its history and geology by collecting rocks that have never been seen before. Researchers hope the huge depth of the crater will allow them to study the moon’s mantle, the layer underneath the surface, of the moon. 
It is the second Chinese probe to land on the moon, following the Yutu rover mission in 2013.
The Chang’e-4 lunar probe mission - named after the moon goddess in Chinese mythology - launched in December 2018 from the southwestern Xichang launch centre. Beijing is pouring billions into the military-run programme, with hopes of having a crewed space station by 2022, and of eventually sending humans to the moon.
 
CHINA  BEATS  ALL  NATIONS
China opted to study the far side of the moon and has in the process beaten all other nations to the landmark moment.  The basin is so far the largest known impact basin in the solar system. The crater is believed to be composed of various chemical compounds, including thorium, iron oxide, and titanium dioxide. It is also hoped that by judging this 8-mile deep scar on the surface of the moon the scientists could find clues to piece together the origin of the lunar mantle.
The picture shows the grey moonscape, the lander and the rover with the track marks it left behind. The image is a circular, 360-degree shot (pictured), which scientists used to create another wide panoramic picture.
There is also another logistical reason for the choice of landing site—-the crater is mostly flat in the south of the basin. This increased the likelihood of a successful landing.This celestial photoshoot gives an astonishing look at the tandem of cutting-edge machinery that China is using to explore the previously unknown region.  Eternally immortalised tracks left from Yutu-2’s maiden voyage away from Chang e-4 on January 4 can also be seen snaking over the untouched surface. 
 
Jade Rabbit 2’s ‘nap’ mode
Jade Rabbit 2 entered ‘nap’ mode after the initial landing in order to survive the blistering 200°C (390°F) lunar daytime which lasts for 14 Earth days. It was stirred from its forced slumber as the brutal temperatures subside ahead of the transition to a 300-hour-long lunar night.  
It was reported by China Central Television Station and read: ‘The central committee of the Community Party of China, State Council and Central Military Commission send messages of congratulation to the successful completion of the Chang’e 4 moon-probing project.’  
The mission took a brief hiatus after landing to allow the machinery on Yutu-2 to shutdown and withstand the brutal lunar day.
Footage has also emerged of a first-person look at the final approach of Chang’e-4 as it completed its pioneering landing on the tempestuous terrain of the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) Basin, the largest and deepest impact crater in the solar system.
 
Lunar surface topography
A statement from the Chinese space agency, CNSA, said: ‘Researchers have completed the preliminary analysis of the lunar surface topography around the landing site based on the image taken by the landing camera.’
Chang’e-4, the Yutu-2 and the Queqiao relay satellite that beams data back to Earth are all ‘in a stable condition, and all work was carried out as planned,’ the statement concluded.
Moon’s lunar day lasts for the equivalent of 14 Earth days and the lack of an atmosphere means the heat is relentless and unabated, unlike on Earth.  Yutu-2 updated its Weibo account and the post read: ‘Noon nap is over. [It’s time to] get up and stretch my legs.’ 
The mission is formed of three basic parts - the rover, the lander and the relay satellite. They will work in unison to study, analyse and send information back to the scientists on Earth
Experts say that the craft will not be able to function indefinitely and may only be able to operate for as little as one day. ‘Of course, it’s never going to leave the Moon, so the question is really how long it can remain operational,’ said Professor Ian Crawford from the department of Earth and planetary sciences at Birkbeck College London.
‘I suspect they will hope for at least one lunar day - 14 Earth days - after which, if it is still working, it will have to hibernate during the 14-day lunar night because it is solar powered, and hopefully wake up again afterwards.
‘That is a tall order because the lunar night is so cold —- about 180°C (-292°F).’
 
Exploration in the Von Kármán crater
Zhang Yuhua, deputy chief commander of the mission, told Chinese state media: ‘After that, the rover will go to its planned area and start a series of scientific exploration projects in the Von Kármán crater as planned by scientists.’
The Yutu-2 - or Jade Rabbit 2 - rover drove off its lander’s ramp and onto the exterior of the moon’s far side at 10:22pm Beijing time (2:22 pm GMT) on January 3, about 12 hours after the Chinese spacecraft carrying it came to rest.
China’s space agency later posted a photos online, revealing the lunar rover several yards away from the spacecraft. The tracks it makes on the surface of the moon will be forever immortalised and will never be lost as there is no wind on the moon due to its lack of an atmosphere.
By 5pm Beijing time the three 15-foot long antennaes on Chang’e-4 had also been fully unfurled to enable the low-frequency radio spectrometre to begin work.
Jade Rabbit 2 has six individually powered wheels so it can continue to operate even if one wheel fails.
It can climb a 20-degree hill or an obstacle up to eight inches (20cm) tall and its maximum speed is said to be 220 yards (200 metres) per hour.
The pioneering rover is five feet (1.5 metres) long and about 3 feet (one metre) wide and tall, with two foldable solar panels and six wheels.
The rover is equipped with a variety of scientific instruments to help it analyse the surface of the moon, including a panoramic and infrared camera, ground-penetrating radar and a low-frequency radio spectrometer.
Professor Crawford added: ‘While operational, it will rove around studying the composition of rocks, and the sub-surface using its ground-penetrating radar.
‘It will just be left on the Moon once it ceases to function, unless one day it is collected and brought back to a museum.’
 
Into the depths of the moon
The rover will use its panoramic camera to identify interesting locations and its Visible and Near-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (VNIS) will help analyse minerals in the crater.
This includes what scientists call ‘ejecta’ - rocks that have churned up from deep to the surface from impacts meteors.
Its Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) instrument will take a look down with a maximum vertical distance of approximately 300 feet (100 metres).
Experiments of seeds and plants that were taken to the moon from Earth on-board the Chang’e-4 probe will be done inside the lunar lander itself.
 
Biological and radiation tests
Yutu-2 and its accompanying lander will carry out mineral, biological and radiation tests ahead of a future base that China hopes to build on the moon.
Results of these experiments could lead to new understandings of the challenges faced by settlers who may one day colonise our natural satellite.
‘It’s a small step for the rover, but one giant leap for the Chinese nation,’ Wu Weiren, the chief designer of the Lunar Exploration Project, told state broadcaster CCTV.
‘This giant leap is a decisive move for our exploration of space and the conquering of the universe.’
Being on the far side of the moon shields the equipment from the noise and will allow Chang’e-4 to produce a low-radio wave emission map of the sky.
Dr Matthew Bothwell, an astronomer at the University of Cambridge, said this could be a crucial step in the future of space exploration and compared its importance to that of the first telescope.
‘The far side of the moon is the only place in the reachable universe that we are able to do this kind of research.
 
Very long wavelength
‘Very long wavelength radiowaves are impossible to study due to their universal beaming of radio waves 24/7 and the emissions from the universe is really faint in comparison.’ ‘Putting an object as large as the moon between the Earth’s constant beaming of radio waves and the antennaes, is a fantastic way of filtering out noise from Earth.
Dr Bothwell added that there is no way of knowing what this could reveal and the opportunities for discovery are enormous.
‘It will provide a new window to look at the universe and we will likely find unexpected things,’ he added.
Dr Bothwell also said that depending on the success of the data gathered by Chang’e-4, it could lead to a ground-based telescope being installed on the far side of the moon.
The far side can’t be seen from Earth and is popularly called the ‘dark side’ because it is relatively unknown, not because it lacks sunlight.
As the landing is happening on the dark side of the moon it required its own satellite to be able to send information back.
To facilitate communication between controllers on Earth and the Chang’e-4 mission, China launched a relay satellite named Queqiao on 20 May and is now stationed in operational orbit about 40,000 miles beyond the moon.
This will be the primary form of communication between Earth and the spacecraft. The probe and explorer will use Queqiao to get their findings back to China. Its descent was also aided by the relay satellite, the Queqiao, or Magpie Bridge. This is positioned at a place in space called L2, a Langraine point.
— Internet

 

Comment

Jade Rabbit 2 weighs 308lbs (139kg) and has six individually powered wheels so it can continue to operate even if one wheel fails. It rolled on to the lunar surface from the lander via two ramps and will explore the Von Karman crater in the southern region of the far side of the moon.
CHINA’S Chang e-4 and Yutu-2 landed on the far side of the moon on January 4 and has sent back stunning images that reveal the vast and barren wasteland on the far side side of the moon as well as shots of the machinery.  This celestial photoshoot gives an astonishing look at the tandem of cutting-edge tech China has created. Footage has also emerged of a first-person look at the final approach of Chang’e-4 as it completed its landing.
Chang e-4’s 360° lens captured the Yutu-2 - or Jade Rabbit 2 - rover in front of the grey moonscape and reveals the potholed surface and barren expanse of land inside the the mysterious Von Kármán crater at the lunar south pole.
Chang’e-4 landed in the Von Karman crater in the South Pole-Aitken basin. This is an enormous crater which resides at the very most southern tip of the moon.  
China’s space agency hopes that by exploring the huge divot on the surface of the moon they may be able to shed some light on its history and geology by collecting rocks that have never been seen before. Researchers hope the huge depth of the crater will allow them to study the moon’s mantle, the layer underneath the surface, of the moon. 
It is the second Chinese probe to land on the moon, following the Yutu rover mission in 2013.
The Chang’e-4 lunar probe mission - named after the moon goddess in Chinese mythology - launched in December 2018 from the southwestern Xichang launch centre. Beijing is pouring billions into the military-run programme, with hopes of having a crewed space station by 2022, and of eventually sending humans to the moon.
 
CHINA  BEATS  ALL  NATIONS
China opted to study the far side of the moon and has in the process beaten all other nations to the landmark moment.  The basin is so far the largest known impact basin in the solar system. The crater is believed to be composed of various chemical compounds, including thorium, iron oxide, and titanium dioxide. It is also hoped that by judging this 8-mile deep scar on the surface of the moon the scientists could find clues to piece together the origin of the lunar mantle.
The picture shows the grey moonscape, the lander and the rover with the track marks it left behind. The image is a circular, 360-degree shot (pictured), which scientists used to create another wide panoramic picture.
There is also another logistical reason for the choice of landing site—-the crater is mostly flat in the south of the basin. This increased the likelihood of a successful landing.This celestial photoshoot gives an astonishing look at the tandem of cutting-edge machinery that China is using to explore the previously unknown region.  Eternally immortalised tracks left from Yutu-2’s maiden voyage away from Chang e-4 on January 4 can also be seen snaking over the untouched surface. 
 
Jade Rabbit 2’s ‘nap’ mode
Jade Rabbit 2 entered ‘nap’ mode after the initial landing in order to survive the blistering 200°C (390°F) lunar daytime which lasts for 14 Earth days. It was stirred from its forced slumber as the brutal temperatures subside ahead of the transition to a 300-hour-long lunar night.  
It was reported by China Central Television Station and read: ‘The central committee of the Community Party of China, State Council and Central Military Commission send messages of congratulation to the successful completion of the Chang’e 4 moon-probing project.’  
The mission took a brief hiatus after landing to allow the machinery on Yutu-2 to shutdown and withstand the brutal lunar day.
Footage has also emerged of a first-person look at the final approach of Chang’e-4 as it completed its pioneering landing on the tempestuous terrain of the South Pole-Aitken (SPA) Basin, the largest and deepest impact crater in the solar system.
 
Lunar surface topography
A statement from the Chinese space agency, CNSA, said: ‘Researchers have completed the preliminary analysis of the lunar surface topography around the landing site based on the image taken by the landing camera.’
Chang’e-4, the Yutu-2 and the Queqiao relay satellite that beams data back to Earth are all ‘in a stable condition, and all work was carried out as planned,’ the statement concluded.
Moon’s lunar day lasts for the equivalent of 14 Earth days and the lack of an atmosphere means the heat is relentless and unabated, unlike on Earth.  Yutu-2 updated its Weibo account and the post read: ‘Noon nap is over. [It’s time to] get up and stretch my legs.’ 
The mission is formed of three basic parts - the rover, the lander and the relay satellite. They will work in unison to study, analyse and send information back to the scientists on Earth
Experts say that the craft will not be able to function indefinitely and may only be able to operate for as little as one day. ‘Of course, it’s never going to leave the Moon, so the question is really how long it can remain operational,’ said Professor Ian Crawford from the department of Earth and planetary sciences at Birkbeck College London.
‘I suspect they will hope for at least one lunar day - 14 Earth days - after which, if it is still working, it will have to hibernate during the 14-day lunar night because it is solar powered, and hopefully wake up again afterwards.
‘That is a tall order because the lunar night is so cold —- about 180°C (-292°F).’
 
Exploration in the Von Kármán crater
Zhang Yuhua, deputy chief commander of the mission, told Chinese state media: ‘After that, the rover will go to its planned area and start a series of scientific exploration projects in the Von Kármán crater as planned by scientists.’
The Yutu-2 - or Jade Rabbit 2 - rover drove off its lander’s ramp and onto the exterior of the moon’s far side at 10:22pm Beijing time (2:22 pm GMT) on January 3, about 12 hours after the Chinese spacecraft carrying it came to rest.
China’s space agency later posted a photos online, revealing the lunar rover several yards away from the spacecraft. The tracks it makes on the surface of the moon will be forever immortalised and will never be lost as there is no wind on the moon due to its lack of an atmosphere.
By 5pm Beijing time the three 15-foot long antennaes on Chang’e-4 had also been fully unfurled to enable the low-frequency radio spectrometre to begin work.
Jade Rabbit 2 has six individually powered wheels so it can continue to operate even if one wheel fails.
It can climb a 20-degree hill or an obstacle up to eight inches (20cm) tall and its maximum speed is said to be 220 yards (200 metres) per hour.
The pioneering rover is five feet (1.5 metres) long and about 3 feet (one metre) wide and tall, with two foldable solar panels and six wheels.
The rover is equipped with a variety of scientific instruments to help it analyse the surface of the moon, including a panoramic and infrared camera, ground-penetrating radar and a low-frequency radio spectrometer.
Professor Crawford added: ‘While operational, it will rove around studying the composition of rocks, and the sub-surface using its ground-penetrating radar.
‘It will just be left on the Moon once it ceases to function, unless one day it is collected and brought back to a museum.’
 
Into the depths of the moon
The rover will use its panoramic camera to identify interesting locations and its Visible and Near-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (VNIS) will help analyse minerals in the crater.
This includes what scientists call ‘ejecta’ - rocks that have churned up from deep to the surface from impacts meteors.
Its Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR) instrument will take a look down with a maximum vertical distance of approximately 300 feet (100 metres).
Experiments of seeds and plants that were taken to the moon from Earth on-board the Chang’e-4 probe will be done inside the lunar lander itself.
 
Biological and radiation tests
Yutu-2 and its accompanying lander will carry out mineral, biological and radiation tests ahead of a future base that China hopes to build on the moon.
Results of these experiments could lead to new understandings of the challenges faced by settlers who may one day colonise our natural satellite.
‘It’s a small step for the rover, but one giant leap for the Chinese nation,’ Wu Weiren, the chief designer of the Lunar Exploration Project, told state broadcaster CCTV.
‘This giant leap is a decisive move for our exploration of space and the conquering of the universe.’
Being on the far side of the moon shields the equipment from the noise and will allow Chang’e-4 to produce a low-radio wave emission map of the sky.
Dr Matthew Bothwell, an astronomer at the University of Cambridge, said this could be a crucial step in the future of space exploration and compared its importance to that of the first telescope.
‘The far side of the moon is the only place in the reachable universe that we are able to do this kind of research.
 
Very long wavelength
‘Very long wavelength radiowaves are impossible to study due to their universal beaming of radio waves 24/7 and the emissions from the universe is really faint in comparison.’ ‘Putting an object as large as the moon between the Earth’s constant beaming of radio waves and the antennaes, is a fantastic way of filtering out noise from Earth.
Dr Bothwell added that there is no way of knowing what this could reveal and the opportunities for discovery are enormous.
‘It will provide a new window to look at the universe and we will likely find unexpected things,’ he added.
Dr Bothwell also said that depending on the success of the data gathered by Chang’e-4, it could lead to a ground-based telescope being installed on the far side of the moon.
The far side can’t be seen from Earth and is popularly called the ‘dark side’ because it is relatively unknown, not because it lacks sunlight.
As the landing is happening on the dark side of the moon it required its own satellite to be able to send information back.
To facilitate communication between controllers on Earth and the Chang’e-4 mission, China launched a relay satellite named Queqiao on 20 May and is now stationed in operational orbit about 40,000 miles beyond the moon.
This will be the primary form of communication between Earth and the spacecraft. The probe and explorer will use Queqiao to get their findings back to China. Its descent was also aided by the relay satellite, the Queqiao, or Magpie Bridge. This is positioned at a place in space called L2, a Langraine point.
— Internet

 


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