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Paralysed limbs moved by brain implant and high-tech sleeve
Ian Burkhart, a 23-year-old from Dublin, Ohio, is able to open and close his hand and do those complex movements that he haven’t been able to do for four years
A QUADRIPLEGIC MAN has been given the ability to move his fingers and hand with his own thoughts thanks to the implantation of an electronic device in his brain and muscle stimulation sleeve. Part of a neurostimulation system dubbed “Neurobridge,” the technology essentially bypasses the damaged spinal cord and reconnects the brain directly to the muscles.
The Neurobridge system, which was developed by nonprofit R&D organization Battelle through work that began a decade ago, uses algorithms to effectively “learn” the user’s brain activity. The system decodes neural impulses from the brain and converts them into signals that are then transmitted to a specially-developed, high-definition electrode stimulation sleeve attached to the paralyzed limb. The sleeve then stimulates the correct muscles to perform the desired movements, with everything from thought to activity taking place within a tenth of a second.
 
Electrical signals
“It’s much like a heart bypass, but instead of bypassing blood, we’re actually bypassing electrical signals,” said Chad Bouton, research leader at Battelle. “We’re taking those signals from the brain, going around the injury, and actually going directly to the muscles.”
Neurobridge is by no means the first system to implant electrodes in the body and bring hope to people suffering paralysis. In 2011, a man paralyzed from the chest down took his first tentative steps after a stimulating electrode array was implanted into his body. Instead of bypassing the nervous system, the implant provided continual direct electrical stimulation to the lower part of the spinal cord that controls movement of the hips, knees, ankles and toes, to mimic the signals the brain usually sends to initiate movement.
Harvard professor Michael J Aziz working on his revolutionary ‘rhubarb battery’
The following year in 2012, the experimental Braingate neural interface system enabled a paralyzed woman to drink a cup of coffee using a robotic arm. Also in 2012, researchers at Northwestern University developed aneuroprosthesis that restored complex movement in the paralyzed hands of monkeys. This involved implanting a multi-electrode array directly into the monkeys’ brains that decoded signals and relayed them to a functional electrical stimulation (FES) device that delivered an electrical current to the paralyzed muscles.
 
Bypassing the spinal cord
But Neurobridge is the only system claimed so far to bypass the spinal cord and provide direct stimulation of a human patient’s muscles using their own thoughts. The first patient to use the Neurobridge neural bypass device is Ian Burkhart, a 23-year-old from Dublin, Ohio, who was paralyzed four years ago in a diving accident. Burkhart saw the chance to participate in the FDA-approved clinical trial at Ohio State’s Wexner Medical Center as a possible way to help other people suffering spinal cord injuries.
“Initially, it piqued my interested because I like science, and it’s pretty interesting,” Burkhart said. “I’ve realized, ‘You know what? This is the way it is. You’re going to have to make the best out of it.’ You can sit and complain about it, but that’s not going to help you at all. So, you might as well work hard, do what you can and keep going on with life.”
High hopes
Dr. Ali Rezai, Burkhart’s surgeon, has high hopes for other patients in the same condition.”I do believe there will be a day coming soon when somebody who’s got a disability — being a quadriplegic or somebody with a stroke, somebody with any kind of brain injury — can use the power of their mind and by thinking, be able to move their arms or legs,” said Rezai.
Burkhart had the Neurobridge device – a micro-chip sensor smaller than a pea – implanted onto the motor cortex area of his brain in a three-hour operation earlier this year. “The surgery required the precise implantation of the micro-chip sensor in the area of Ian’s brain that controls his arm and hand movements,” Wexner Center clinician Dr. Ali Rezai said.
 
Sequence of electrodes
Following the operation, the researchers worked on a way to arrange the correct sequence of electrodes to stimulate to permit Burkhart to move his fingers and hand in a functional manner. Unlike other devices that merely stimulate gross-motor areas to provide muscle tension, the Neurobridge device specifically targets individual muscles matched to individual neural impulses.
As such, the researchers had to differentiate between neural signals that operated such things as the muscles rotating his hand, those employed to make a fist, or the ones that made him pinch his fingers together. Then, once the signals had been sorted, each signal was connected to its appropriate place on the stimulation sleeve to drive the correct set of muscles. Once these finer points were configured, Ian was finally able to move his hand and use his fingers under his own thought control.
 
Neurobridge 
The on-going programme at the Wexner Medical Center includes four other potential patients who have volunteered to participate and they, too, should hopefully see further benefits from this breakthrough in thought-controlled electrical muscle stimulation.
“It’s definitely great for me to be as young as I am when I was injured because the advancements in science and technology are growing rapidly and they’re only going to continue to increase,” Burkhart said.
 
Neuroscientist Dr. Ali Rezai
Dr. Ali Rezai, MD, Director, Neurological Institute Associate Dean, is Professor of Neurosurgery and Neuroscience
Neuroscience Stanley D. and Joan H. Ross Chair in Neuromodulation at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center. Dr. Rezai is the Past President of the Congress of Neurological Surgeons (CNS), the largest neurosurgical societies in the world, as well as the Past President of the North American Neuromodulation Society (NANS), and the American Society of Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery (ASSFN).
—Internet

 

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Ian Burkhart, a 23-year-old from Dublin, Ohio, is able to open and close his hand and do those complex movements that he haven’t been able to do for four years
A QUADRIPLEGIC MAN has been given the ability to move his fingers and hand with his own thoughts thanks to the implantation of an electronic device in his brain and muscle stimulation sleeve. Part of a neurostimulation system dubbed “Neurobridge,” the technology essentially bypasses the damaged spinal cord and reconnects the brain directly to the muscles.
The Neurobridge system, which was developed by nonprofit R&D organization Battelle through work that began a decade ago, uses algorithms to effectively “learn” the user’s brain activity. The system decodes neural impulses from the brain and converts them into signals that are then transmitted to a specially-developed, high-definition electrode stimulation sleeve attached to the paralyzed limb. The sleeve then stimulates the correct muscles to perform the desired movements, with everything from thought to activity taking place within a tenth of a second.
 
Electrical signals
“It’s much like a heart bypass, but instead of bypassing blood, we’re actually bypassing electrical signals,” said Chad Bouton, research leader at Battelle. “We’re taking those signals from the brain, going around the injury, and actually going directly to the muscles.”
Neurobridge is by no means the first system to implant electrodes in the body and bring hope to people suffering paralysis. In 2011, a man paralyzed from the chest down took his first tentative steps after a stimulating electrode array was implanted into his body. Instead of bypassing the nervous system, the implant provided continual direct electrical stimulation to the lower part of the spinal cord that controls movement of the hips, knees, ankles and toes, to mimic the signals the brain usually sends to initiate movement.
Harvard professor Michael J Aziz working on his revolutionary ‘rhubarb battery’
The following year in 2012, the experimental Braingate neural interface system enabled a paralyzed woman to drink a cup of coffee using a robotic arm. Also in 2012, researchers at Northwestern University developed aneuroprosthesis that restored complex movement in the paralyzed hands of monkeys. This involved implanting a multi-electrode array directly into the monkeys’ brains that decoded signals and relayed them to a functional electrical stimulation (FES) device that delivered an electrical current to the paralyzed muscles.
 
Bypassing the spinal cord
But Neurobridge is the only system claimed so far to bypass the spinal cord and provide direct stimulation of a human patient’s muscles using their own thoughts. The first patient to use the Neurobridge neural bypass device is Ian Burkhart, a 23-year-old from Dublin, Ohio, who was paralyzed four years ago in a diving accident. Burkhart saw the chance to participate in the FDA-approved clinical trial at Ohio State’s Wexner Medical Center as a possible way to help other people suffering spinal cord injuries.
“Initially, it piqued my interested because I like science, and it’s pretty interesting,” Burkhart said. “I’ve realized, ‘You know what? This is the way it is. You’re going to have to make the best out of it.’ You can sit and complain about it, but that’s not going to help you at all. So, you might as well work hard, do what you can and keep going on with life.”
High hopes
Dr. Ali Rezai, Burkhart’s surgeon, has high hopes for other patients in the same condition.”I do believe there will be a day coming soon when somebody who’s got a disability — being a quadriplegic or somebody with a stroke, somebody with any kind of brain injury — can use the power of their mind and by thinking, be able to move their arms or legs,” said Rezai.
Burkhart had the Neurobridge device – a micro-chip sensor smaller than a pea – implanted onto the motor cortex area of his brain in a three-hour operation earlier this year. “The surgery required the precise implantation of the micro-chip sensor in the area of Ian’s brain that controls his arm and hand movements,” Wexner Center clinician Dr. Ali Rezai said.
 
Sequence of electrodes
Following the operation, the researchers worked on a way to arrange the correct sequence of electrodes to stimulate to permit Burkhart to move his fingers and hand in a functional manner. Unlike other devices that merely stimulate gross-motor areas to provide muscle tension, the Neurobridge device specifically targets individual muscles matched to individual neural impulses.
As such, the researchers had to differentiate between neural signals that operated such things as the muscles rotating his hand, those employed to make a fist, or the ones that made him pinch his fingers together. Then, once the signals had been sorted, each signal was connected to its appropriate place on the stimulation sleeve to drive the correct set of muscles. Once these finer points were configured, Ian was finally able to move his hand and use his fingers under his own thought control.
 
Neurobridge 
The on-going programme at the Wexner Medical Center includes four other potential patients who have volunteered to participate and they, too, should hopefully see further benefits from this breakthrough in thought-controlled electrical muscle stimulation.
“It’s definitely great for me to be as young as I am when I was injured because the advancements in science and technology are growing rapidly and they’re only going to continue to increase,” Burkhart said.
 
Neuroscientist Dr. Ali Rezai
Dr. Ali Rezai, MD, Director, Neurological Institute Associate Dean, is Professor of Neurosurgery and Neuroscience
Neuroscience Stanley D. and Joan H. Ross Chair in Neuromodulation at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center. Dr. Rezai is the Past President of the Congress of Neurological Surgeons (CNS), the largest neurosurgical societies in the world, as well as the Past President of the North American Neuromodulation Society (NANS), and the American Society of Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery (ASSFN).
—Internet

 


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Neglected properties of light

Quantum Mystery of Light Revealed by New Experiment: This illustration shows the dual nature of light, which acts like both particles and waves. In a new experiment reported in November 2012, researchers observed light photons acting like both particles and waves simultaneously.
UNIVERSITY of Toronto physics researchers Edwin (Weng Kian) Tham and Hugo Ferretti prepare to run a test in their quest to beat Rayleigh’s Curse, by tapping into previously neglected properties of light. Credit: Diana Tyszko/University of Toronto
University of Toronto (U of T) researchers have demonstrated a way to increase the resolution of microscopes and telescopes beyond long-accepted limitations by tapping into previously neglected properties of light. The method allows observers to distinguish very small or distant objects that are so close together they normally meld into a single blur.
Telescopes and microscopes are great for observing lone subjects. Scientists can precisely detect and measure a single distant star. The longer they observe, the more refined their data becomes.
That’s because even the best telescopes are subject to laws of physics that cause light to spread out or “diffract.” A sharp pinpoint becomes an ever-so-slightly blurry dot. If two stars are so close together that their blurs overlap, no amount of observation can separate them out. Their individual information is irrevocably lost.
More than 100 years ago, British physicist John William Strutt - better known as Lord Rayleigh - established the minimum distance between objects necessary for a telescope to pick out each individually. The “Rayleigh Criterion” has stood as an inherent limitation of the field of optics ever since.
“To beat Rayleigh’s curse, you have to do something clever,” says Professor Aephraim Steinberg, a physicist at U of T’s Centre for Quantum Information and Quantum Control, and Senior Fellow in the Quantum Information Science program at the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research. He’s the lead author of a paper published today in the journal Physical Review Letters.
Light travels in waves, and all waves have a phase. Phase refers to the location of a wave’s crests and troughs. Even when a pair of close-together light sources blurs into a single blob, information about their individual wave phases remains intact. You just have to know how to look for it. This realization was published by National University of Singapore researchers Mankei Tsang, Ranjith Nair, and Xiao-Ming Lu last year in Physical Review X, and Steinberg’s and three other experimental groups immediately set about devising a variety of ways to put it into practice.
—Internet

Comment

Quantum Mystery of Light Revealed by New Experiment: This illustration shows the dual nature of light, which acts like both particles and waves. In a new experiment reported in November 2012, researchers observed light photons acting like both particles and waves simultaneously.
UNIVERSITY of Toronto physics researchers Edwin (Weng Kian) Tham and Hugo Ferretti prepare to run a test in their quest to beat Rayleigh’s Curse, by tapping into previously neglected properties of light. Credit: Diana Tyszko/University of Toronto
University of Toronto (U of T) researchers have demonstrated a way to increase the resolution of microscopes and telescopes beyond long-accepted limitations by tapping into previously neglected properties of light. The method allows observers to distinguish very small or distant objects that are so close together they normally meld into a single blur.
Telescopes and microscopes are great for observing lone subjects. Scientists can precisely detect and measure a single distant star. The longer they observe, the more refined their data becomes.
That’s because even the best telescopes are subject to laws of physics that cause light to spread out or “diffract.” A sharp pinpoint becomes an ever-so-slightly blurry dot. If two stars are so close together that their blurs overlap, no amount of observation can separate them out. Their individual information is irrevocably lost.
More than 100 years ago, British physicist John William Strutt - better known as Lord Rayleigh - established the minimum distance between objects necessary for a telescope to pick out each individually. The “Rayleigh Criterion” has stood as an inherent limitation of the field of optics ever since.
“To beat Rayleigh’s curse, you have to do something clever,” says Professor Aephraim Steinberg, a physicist at U of T’s Centre for Quantum Information and Quantum Control, and Senior Fellow in the Quantum Information Science program at the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research. He’s the lead author of a paper published today in the journal Physical Review Letters.
Light travels in waves, and all waves have a phase. Phase refers to the location of a wave’s crests and troughs. Even when a pair of close-together light sources blurs into a single blob, information about their individual wave phases remains intact. You just have to know how to look for it. This realization was published by National University of Singapore researchers Mankei Tsang, Ranjith Nair, and Xiao-Ming Lu last year in Physical Review X, and Steinberg’s and three other experimental groups immediately set about devising a variety of ways to put it into practice.
—Internet

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Cyberespionage hits Israeli soldiers

MORE THAN 100 members of the Israel Defence Forces (IDF), the majority of them stationed around the Gaza strip, fell victim to a cyberespionage attack that used malicious Android applications to steal information from their mobile devices.
The attack campaign started in last July and continues to date, according to researchers from antivirus firm Kaspersky Lab, who cooperated in the investigation with the IDF Information Security Department.
 
Hackers posed as pretty women
The Israeli soldiers were lured via Facebook Messenger and other social networks by hackers who posed as attractive women from various countries like Canada, Germany, and Switzerland. The victims were tricked into installing a malicious Android application, which then scanned the phone and downloaded another malicious app that masqueraded as an update for one of the already installed applications.
For example, the Kaspersky researchers have seen a payload named “WhatsApp_Update.” Once installed on the phone, this malicious app allows hackers to execute on-demand or scheduled commands. The commands can be used to read text messages, access the contacts list, take pictures and screenshots, eavesdrop at specific times of the day, and record video and audio.
The Kaspersky researchers concluded that this is likely only the “opening shot” of the operation and that it is a targeted attack against the Israel Defense Forces, “aiming to exfiltrate data on how ground forces are spread, which tactics and equipment the IDF is using, and real-time intelligence gathering.”
The Ukrainian malware, created by the Russian APT28 cyberespionage group, was delivered as a trojanized version of a custom application intended to help artillery forces more quickly process targeting data for the Soviet-made D-30 howitzer. The malware might have been used to track the movement of Ukrainian units, with open source data suggesting that in the two years of conflict the Ukrainian artillery lost over 80 percent of its D-30 howitzers.
—Internet

Comment

MORE THAN 100 members of the Israel Defence Forces (IDF), the majority of them stationed around the Gaza strip, fell victim to a cyberespionage attack that used malicious Android applications to steal information from their mobile devices.
The attack campaign started in last July and continues to date, according to researchers from antivirus firm Kaspersky Lab, who cooperated in the investigation with the IDF Information Security Department.
 
Hackers posed as pretty women
The Israeli soldiers were lured via Facebook Messenger and other social networks by hackers who posed as attractive women from various countries like Canada, Germany, and Switzerland. The victims were tricked into installing a malicious Android application, which then scanned the phone and downloaded another malicious app that masqueraded as an update for one of the already installed applications.
For example, the Kaspersky researchers have seen a payload named “WhatsApp_Update.” Once installed on the phone, this malicious app allows hackers to execute on-demand or scheduled commands. The commands can be used to read text messages, access the contacts list, take pictures and screenshots, eavesdrop at specific times of the day, and record video and audio.
The Kaspersky researchers concluded that this is likely only the “opening shot” of the operation and that it is a targeted attack against the Israel Defense Forces, “aiming to exfiltrate data on how ground forces are spread, which tactics and equipment the IDF is using, and real-time intelligence gathering.”
The Ukrainian malware, created by the Russian APT28 cyberespionage group, was delivered as a trojanized version of a custom application intended to help artillery forces more quickly process targeting data for the Soviet-made D-30 howitzer. The malware might have been used to track the movement of Ukrainian units, with open source data suggesting that in the two years of conflict the Ukrainian artillery lost over 80 percent of its D-30 howitzers.
—Internet

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