|Engineer Evelyn Wang
IN FUTURE every home will an appliance that will pull all the water the household needs out of the air, even in dry or desert climates, using only the power of the sun. That future may be around the corner, with the recent demonstration of a water harvester that uses only ambient sunlight to draw liters of water out of the air each day in conditions as low as 20 per cent humidity, a level common in arid areas.
The solar-powered harvester, reported in the journal Science, was constructed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology using a special material —- a metal-organic framework, or MOF —-produced at the University of California, Berkeley.
A team of researchers at MIT and the University of California, Berkeley have developed a device that uses the power of the sun to extract water from the air. Their device works at low power and in arid conditions, which means it could help remote desert communities without constant access to fresh water.
Fundamentally, the new device does the same thing as a dehumidifier: it turns excess water vapor in the air into liquid water. But where a dehumidifier uses lots of electricity, the researchers’ water harvester uses only heat from the sun and a special material called an MOF.
|Prof. Omar M. Yaghi invented compounds known as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) 20 years ago, and now is using MOF crystals to harvest water even in dry places. In the water harvesting device, around two pounds of tiny MOF crystals are compressed between a solar absorber and condenser plate to collect around 0.7 gallons of water in 12 hours. The photo shows Yaghi talking to a journalist.
MOF stands for Metal-Organic Framework. An MOF is a lattice of organic molecules interspersed with metals like magnesium or aluminum. The MOF used in the scientists’ water harvester is made of zirconium and adipic acid.
MOFs act as molecular sponges, capturing and storing specific particles of liquid or gas. The zirconium/adipic acid MOF is well-suited to capturing water molecules in the air, and the researchers combined it with a water storage system to create their device.
“This is a major breakthrough in the long-standing challenge of harvesting water from the air at low humidity,” said Omar Yaghi, one of two senior authors of the paper, who holds the James and Neeltje Tretter chair in chemistry at UC Berkeley and is a faculty scientist at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. “There is no other way to do that right now, except by using extra energy. Electric dehumidifier at home ‘produces’ very expensive water.”
Yaghi invented metal-organic frameworks more than 20 years ago, combining metals like magnesium or aluminum with organic molecules in a tinker-toy arrangement to create rigid, porous structures ideal for storing gases and liquids. Since then, more than 20,000 different MOFs have been created by researchers worldwide. Some hold chemicals such as hydrogen or methane: the chemical company BASF is testing one of Yaghi’s MOFs in natural gas-fueled trucks, since MOF-filled tanks hold three times the methane that can be pumped under pressure into an empty tank.
|The water harvester, built at MIT, uses MOFs synthesized at Berkeley to suck water from dry air. The harvester uses sunlight to heat the MOF, driving off the water vapor and condensing it for use. The device pulls water from dry air, powered only by the Sun. The lines in the models are organic linkers, and the intersections are metal ions.
Other MOFs are able to capture carbon dioxide from flue gases, catalyze the reaction of adsorbed chemicals or separate petrochemicals in processing plants.
Born in Amman, Jordan in 1965, Omar M. Yaghi received his PhD in 1990. He was a National Science Foundation Postdoctoral Fellow at Harvard University (1990–1992). In 2012, Yaghi moved to the University of California, Berkeley where he is now the James and Neeltje Tretter Professor of Chemistry.
Professor Yaghi is the Founding Director of the Berkeley Global Science Institute. He is also a Co-Director of the Kavli Energy NanoSciences Institute of the University of California, Berkeley and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, as well as the California Research Alliance by BASF. His early accomplishments in the design and synthesis of new materials have been honored by the Solid State Chemistry Award of the American Chemical Society and Exxon Co. He is the second most cited chemist in the world (2000–2010). Email: email@example.com
Rooftop tests at MIT
The prototype, under conditions of 20-30 percent humidity, is able to pull 2.8 liters (3 quarts) of water from the air over a 12-hour period, using one kilogram (2.2 pounds) of MOF. Rooftop tests at MIT confirmed that the device works in real-world conditions.
“One vision for the future is to have water off-grid, where you have a device at home running on ambient solar for delivering water that satisfies the needs of a household,” said Yaghi, who is the founding director of the Berkeley Global Science Institute, a co-director of the Kavli Energy NanoSciences Institute and the California Research Alliance by BASF. “To me, that will be made possible because of this experiment. I call it personalized water.”
In 2014, Yaghi and his UC Berkeley team synthesized a MOF —- a combination of zirconium metal and adipic acid —- that binds water vapor, and he suggested to Evelyn Wang, a mechanical engineer at MIT, that they join forces to turn the MOF into a water-collecting system.
The system Wang and her students designed consisted of more than two pounds of dust-sized MOF crystals compressed between a solar absorber and a condenser plate, placed inside a chamber open to the air. As ambient air diffuses through the porous MOF, water molecules preferentially attach to the interior surfaces. X-ray diffraction studies have shown that the water vapor molecules often gather in groups of eight to form cubes.
Sunlight entering through a window heats up the MOF and drives the bound water toward the condenser, which is at the temperature of the outside air. The vapor condenses as liquid water and drips into a collector.
“This work offers a new way to harvest water from air that does not require high relative humidity conditions and is much more energy efficient than other existing technologies,” Wang said.
Yaghi and his team are at work improving their MOFs, while Wang continues to improve the harvesting system to produce more water.
“To have water running all the time, you could design a system that absorbs the humidity during the night and evolves it during the day,” he said. “Or design the solar collector to allow for this at a much faster rate, where more air is pushed in. We wanted to demonstrate that if you are cut off somewhere in the desert, you could survive because of this device. A person needs about a Coke can of water per day. That is something one could collect in less than an hour with this system.”
This proof of concept harvester leaves much room for improvement, Yaghi said. The current MOF can absorb only 20 percent of its weight in water, but other MOF materials could possibly absorb 40 percent or more. The material can also be tweaked to be more effective at higher or lower humidity levels.
“It’s not just that we made a passive device that sits there collecting water; we have now laid both the experimental and theoretical foundations so that we can screen other MOFs, thousands of which could be made, to find even better materials,” he said. “There is a lot of potential for scaling up the amount of water that is being harvested. It is just a matter of further engineering now.”